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Posted on 17 May 2019

New Power Semiconductor Devices from JCS “Proton-Electrotex”

 

Company Specific Publication from
Proton Electrotex

Loktaev Yu. M.
Stavtsev A.M.
Surma A.M.
Chernikov A.A.

 

 

JSC “Proton-Electritex” is one of the leading Russian companies in terms of development and production of high-power semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors, modules on their base, heat-sinks and so on.

The released production covers practically all range of power semiconductor thyristors and diodes with voltage from 100 to 6500 V and with current from 100 to 3000 A. Thyristors and diodes are produced of disk and stud constructional type. Along with thyristors and diodes which are supposed to operate under industrial frequency, our company also produces fast and pulse-frequency thyristors, fast-recovery diodes, as well as diodes with soft characteristic of reverse recovery.

A wide nomenclature of modules is also prodused on the base of thyristor and diode elements in different circuit configurations in full press-pack construction with isolated basement. Modules are produced under voltage from 100 to 1250 A.

The main tendencies of new equipment development can be characterized as following:

1. Development and exploitation of production of high voltage thyristors and high power diodes including the devices on the base of silicon crystals of 100 and more millimeters in diameter.

Today the thyristors and diodes with voltage of up to 6500 V are developed on the base of silicon crystal of 23-80 mm in diameter with average current from 200 to 1250 A and as well thyristors on the base of silicon crystal of 100 mm in diameter with voltage to 6000 V and average current to 2000 A.

The development of thyristors with voltage to 8500 including thyristors on the base of crystals of 1000 mm in diameter with average current of 1850 A is close to completion.

It is planned that such devices will be applied to the native power-efficient electro-converter equipment of a new generation in  electroenergy and transport. Our foreign partners are interested in new high-voltage and high-current thyristors and diodes.

2. Development and exploitation in production of high-voltage thyristors and diodes with precise controlled characteristics of reverse recovery not only with increased operation speed but also for the operation with industrial frequency.

TFI 473-1600 on the base of a crystal of 80 mm in diameter was developed and exploited. This device possesses unique characteristics   even in comparison with the best foreign analogues: voltage to 4300 V, average current to 1600 A, turn-off time less then 80 µs, recovered charge (125С, di/dt = - 50 А/µs) not more than µC with the opportunity of  precise selection in a delivered part with  variation not less than 2%.

The company also offers high voltage thyristors and diodes (with voltage to 6500 V) with precisely selected characteristics of reverse recovery for operating in simultaneous applications of these devices. Grouping of devices by characteristics of reverse recovery is made on a special booth which reproduces the operating conditions in series type connection in the regimes close to operational conditions. Usage of these testing applications and special methods allow to make the selection of the devices groups reliably operating in consequential columns even without matching RC-circuits.

Our company also plans to produce power stacks  KT.5.11-800 on the base of thyristors grouped according to the described technology to be used in high-voltage softstarters of asynchronous motors (to 6 kV) with power from 630 kW.

3. Development and exploitation of high-voltage modules with isolated basement on the base of thyristor and diode crystals of 24-56 mm in diameter

New devices of such type, with voltage from 4000 to 6500 V, have been developed and in the near future, the voltage is planned to be extended to 8500 V.

4. Development and exploitation of a series of thyristors of increased reliability.

The new more reliable cover peripheral areas are being used and a new technology of connection of crystals with thermocompensator is being developed. Our company has developed a series of high-voltage thyristors with elements of self-protection integrated in silicon structure which allows switching the device safety in peak overvoltage and also in voltage supplying on the thyristor with incomplete recovery of blocking capability.

5. Development of high-power semiconductor devices using new constructional technological decisions and physical operating principals.

The interesting results of the investigations leading in these directions in our opinion are:

  • Symmetrical voltage suppressors with improved power capacity containing hidden n-layers.

Symmetrical avalanche voltage suppressors of “traditional” construction and a new device containing hidden n-layers with reduced specific resistance, they are schematically shown in Figure 1.

Symmetrical avalanche voltage suppressors of “traditional” construction and a new device containing hidden n-layers with reduced specific resistance. For the devices of traditional type, the problematic area which limits the maximal impulse values of dissipated power and avalanche current as well as the maximum allowable loss energy is the edge area bordering with the bevel. In this area, under any polarity of applied voltage there is concentration of current density and  the conditions of heat rejection are made worse because the size of the upper case contact is smaller than the size of the semiconductor structure.

In Fig.2, dependence of current and voltage for an experimental avalanche symmetrical suppressor of new construction is shown. The diameter of this semiconductor structure was 32 mm, the voltage of the beginning of avalanche discharge – 1650 V.

The peak stroke power was about 300 kW, the loss energy to 150 J under single impulses.

Figure 1. Symmetric avalanche voltage suppressor with “conventional” structure and new device containing hidden n-layers with reduced specific resistance

Numbers: 1 – copper case contact, 2 – contact metallization of semiconductor structure, 3 – compound, 4 – semiconductor structure, 5 – molibdenic thermocompensator

 

Figure 2. a. – current and voltage dependence on time. b. isothermic dynamic volt-ampere characteristic

 

  • Power high-voltage impulse dinistors.

Power high-voltage impulse dinistors are produced on the base of four layers thyristor structures with integrate transistor element – overvoltage suppressor (see Figure 3). The basic structure of the devise is a thyristor, a thyristor at that plays a role of a gate commutator of currents of high amplitude. Instead of a fast voltage suppressor there is a three layers suppressor integrated in the device structure the avalanche current of which includes a thyristor structure. If a thyristor structure has multistage regenerative gate this element on the whole can be placed in the limits of any gate areas or in each of them. Such a device may be used as a very powerful and very fast protective element or commutator of current and voltage impulses with exclusively fast rise speeds. On Figure 4 there are oscillograms of voltage and current while commutation of experimental dinistor the semiconductor element of which is shown on Figure 5.

Figure 3. four layers thyristor structures with integrate transistor element – overvoltage suppressor

 

Figure 4. Commutation of current impulses with rise speed
about 5 kA/ µs (a.) and about 200 kA/ µs(b.)

 

 

Figure 5. Commutation of experimental dinistor the semiconductor element

 

Below is an oscillogram of reverse recovery current of experimental high voltage diode (UR=4800 V) produced on the base of silicon crystal of 56 mm in diameter. The examinations were held with primary inductive load which determined the anode current loss speed under reverse voltage of voltage source U R (DC) about 1000 V. The original DC was about 1000 A, loss speed was about 1600 A/µs. Typical values of S-factor were 1.6-2.

  • High-voltage high current diodes with ultrasoft reverse recovery characteristic.
Figure 6. Oscillogram of reverse recovery current of experimental high voltage diode

 

 


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